Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bioactive components extracted from blackberry and blueberry pomace to control Campylobacter colonization in chicken as well as its applicability as animal feed supplement.
Methods: Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined with broth microdilution method. Adhesion and invasiveness assay was carried out in chicken cell-culture model. Expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in host cells was determined with qRT-PCR.
Results: Our results indicated that MBC of blackberry and blueberry pomace extracts were 0.8 and 0.5 mg GAE/ml on Campylobacter jejuni. Physicochemical properties such as cell surface hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation of C. jejuni were altered and swimming motility was reduced by > 80% due to treatment with berry pomace extract. We also found that the pomace extracts influenced the expression of C. jejuni virulence genes, especially flaA and reduced attachment with chicken fibroblast (DF1) cells by > 0.5 log. Berry pomace extract showed anti-inflammatory effect on chicken macrophage (HD11) cell line by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, IL-1β and IL-6 when infected with C. jejuni for 24 h.
Significance: This study shows that bioactive extracts from blackberry and blueberry pomace can serve as a potential alternative to chemical antimicrobials and reduce Campylobacter colonization in farm animals specifically poultry, to improve product safety.