The symposium will begin with a short introduction on C. botulinum, including both proteolytic and non-proteolytic C. botulinum, and on the approaches used to control this pathogen in a large variety of foods. The next presentation will consider the safety of minimally heated chilled foods with respect to non-proteolytic C. botulinum, and the advancements that have been made using quantitative risk assessment. Then, an example of nitrite level reduction in processed meat products will be presented and more generally, the potential application of fermentates to inhibit the growth of C. botulinum will be discussed. Finally, a quantitative risk assessment of proteolytic C. botulinum in canned foie gras in France will be introduced. The model outputs have been interpreted into a risk-based food safety management perspective. This work illustrates that despite receiving a mild heat treatment, this canned product does not present any public health risk.