S66 Disinfectant By-products in Wash Water, Vegetables and Fruits 

Wednesday, August 3, 2016: 10:30 AM-12:00 PM
230 (America's Center - St. Louis)
Sponsored By:
Primary Contact: Xuetong Fan
Organizer: Xuetong Fan
Convenor: Joshua Gurtler
Disinfectants (sanitizers) are often used by the produce industry in the wash water to reduce the population of microorganisms in the products/water and to minimize cross contamination.  Washing with sanitizers is one of the critical processing steps for fresh and fresh-cut produce.  The most common sanitizers used by the fresh produce industry in the U.S. are chlorine-based compounds, such as sodium hypochlorite (chlorine) and chlorine dioxide. However, there is a concern about the use of chlorine in the fresh produce industry and other industries due to potential environmental and health risks associated with the formation of carcinogenic halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs).  Chlorine reacts with organic matter and forms carcinogenic halogenated DBPs.  Partly due to the possible generation of halogenated DBPs in the water, the use of chlorine in fresh-cut produce washing is prohibited in European countries. A recent survey of fruits and vegetables in Europe suggested that perchlorate and chlorate are present in fruits and vegetables at levels exceeding the maximum residue limit of 0.01 mg/kg imposed by the European Union.  It is suspected that chlorination of water may contribute to chlorate and perchlorate formation. The symposium will present the most updated information on formation of DBPs, factors contributing to the formations, means to minimize the accumulations in water and produce, detection methods, the risk of BBPs for human health, and regulatory aspects.


10:30 AM
Presence of Chlorate and Perchlorate in Fruits and Vegetables and Risks for Public Health
Alexander Lemke, Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart
11:20 AM
Formation of Chlorate and Perchlorate in Fresh Produce as a Result of Chlorine Dioxide Treatment
David Smith, U.S. Department of Agriculture-ARS, Animal Metabolism-Agricultural Chemicals Research
11:40 AM
Chlorine By-products in Wash Water and Fresh Produce
Xuetong Fan, U.S. Department of Agriculture-ARS-ERRC
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